From: The Daily Digest.
The end of the world according to the UN climate report
“The End of the World?
Is it sensationalist to speak of the “end of the world”?
“ Not quite. The UN report shows that the world as we have known it, does not exist anymore. Irreversible changes have already occurred, inducing heat waves and droughts. If governments, industries, and populations continue on this road, mankind will have to live with the apocalypse of a much less habitable, more unequal, and more violent planet.”
Hypersonic Weapons May Evade $342M Pentagon Satellite Project: China Study
“The U.S. is making significant upgrades to the world’s best missile early warning system in space, but the Pentagon will need at least 10 times more satellites to track future hypersonic weapons, a team of researchers in China said in a new study last week.”
“But a powerful early warning system would allow American hypersonic weapons to intercept those being launched by China and Russia, according to the researchers with the People’s Liberation Army-affiliated Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunication.”
IT IS INTERESTING that the *END OF THE WORLD* is fast approaching and the Governments of the world let that happen by not investing enough in the future of humanity; instead they finance the construction of more weapons so they can kill more people.
I know that the governments have at their disposal large quantities of financial clout, or *credit* to throw around, but they should listen to the scientists and their own constituents, after all the children of their grand children will be in dire straits and will be starving to death, therefore they cannot pay the salary of expensive politicians. Such a scenario will mean that anarchy will take hold and politicians will not be needed anymore: THE END.
I for one do not want such a disastrous ending to our beautiful world.
The most worrisome problem in my opinion is the *climate change*. Many Scientists have studied the climate and have measured more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than any time in the past. From such measurements and visual evidence, such as more devastating storms, more large forest fires, large lakes drying in several parts of the world, more rain in other parts of the world, glaciers and polar ice caps melting, etc. Everything indicates that the Earth is getting warmer.
Since the measurements indicate that there is more carbon in the atmosphere, the scientists have concluded that “it* is the cause that we should concentrate on.
I agree that carbon in the atmosphere can have an effect on the atmosphere and the temperature of the planet; but there may also be another cause. More on that later. But first some things that would mitigate the carbon from the air.
Calcium and water are everywhere. See link: Calcium – Wikipedia
Scroll to: Occurrence and production.
We can use Calcium and Hydrogen to store *energy*. The Canadian Army used Calcium mixed with Hydrogen back in the 1940es and during the war they needed hydrogen to lift balloons into the air.
Calcium Hydride *CaH2* can be very important for energy storage and transportation. The very wide use of hydrogen gas as a source of stored energy makes it possible to eliminate the use of petroleum as a fuel.
CaH2 is a powder that can be stored indefinitely and transported safely.
As long as the powder of CaH2 is kept dry it is safe to handle: Many cleaning products in the home have similar or greater toxicity level. In other words, wear cloves, eye protection and do not breathe the dust if working with CaH2.
Hydrogen gas does not burn or explode unless it is mixed with a Gas that readily combines with it; such as Oxygen or chloride, even then it needs something to initiate the combustion, such as a spark, heat, or even UV light.
Intermittent direct current energy from wind turbines or solar panels can be used to separate hydrogen and oxygen from water.
The hydrogen and oxygen can be used to combine Calcium and Hydrogen, the CaH2 mixture can then be transported anywhere in the world.
By adding water *H2O* to the mixture of CaH2, the Hydrogen gas will be released and the Oxygen from the water will mix with the Calcium and create Calcium, Oxygen and Hydrogen mixture. When the oxygen, hydrogen, and calcium mix together they form Calcium Hydroxide *Ca (OH) 2*.
If anyone experiments with this reaction in a closed container, take all possibilities into consideration.
From: calcium oxide and water reaction – Bing
“Making Calcium Hydroxide*.
*Calcium oxide* reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali. A lot of heat is produced in the reaction, which may even cause the water to boil.”
Steam and Hydrogen pressure can be dangerous if allowed to accumulate in closed containers, the pressure resistance of containers should be known before use for such purpose.
By using renewable *green* energy the *Calcium Hydroxide* can be converted back to *Calcium Hydride* and the use of hydrogen gas can replace the use of oil in heating and in the power for transportation. Oil will still be used for many situations, such as lubrication and medications etc., the only thing that will change is that oil will not be burned in large quantity, therefore leaving the atmosphere much cleaner for the grand kids and their offspring.
People displaced from the Oil Industry will need to learn new techniques in the Hydrogen Industry.
The “Hydrogen Economy”.
“The term hydrogen economy was coined by John Bockris during a talk he gave in 1970 at General Motors (GM) Technical Center. The concept was proposed earlier by geneticist J.B.S. Haldane.”
Hydrogen economy – Wikipedia
The *Hydrogen Economy* is good for the planet and good for all the people and specifically those that participate in the *Hydrogen Economy*, the planet’s air will be cleaner and the people that participate in its development and operation will get income, even if cleaner air is not enough to stem the onset of climate change.
Earlier I mentioned that there may be another reason why the Earth’s climate is changing.
I am going to explain my reasoning *why* I believe that. But first you the reader must understand something about my *hypothesis* about the structure of the universe. Do not worry, I’ll keep it as simple as possible.
Before the universe existed there was nothing; then the *Infinite Intelligence* or as the Bible tells us *God* created 2 things. In my opinion they were Space and Mass. The Space was totally and evenly filled with Mass, and the Mass was motionless within the space, therefore there was no energy or light. Then the *Infinite Intelligence* again *created* and this time it was *motion* of the mass within the space. Part of this motion was in the form of frequencies that we have today, the frequencies range from sub audio to audio and up past light to gamma rays and beyond. This phenomenon is represented by Albert Einstein’s equation of E=mc2 in other words, there is no energy if there is no mass involved. Another equation that points to the same conclusion is, E= (U/k) c.
After Einstein formulated the equation, others realized that there were elements that already emitted *energy* in the form of *radiation*, such as *heat*, one of the elements was Uranium. They studied the uranium atom and realized that it was the *breaking* of the Uranium atom’s nucleus that caused the *energy radiation* from the material. Such material was termed *radioactive*.
“The idea of a chemical chain reaction was first suggested in 1913 by the German chemist Max Bodenstein”
Mr. Enrico Fermi may have been the person that suggested testing the *chain reaction* of *radioactive elements* such as Uranium and Plutonium. The chain reaction was achieved in December of 1942.
The *chain reaction* of radioactive elements was used in very destructive bombs and was also developed to generate electrical power.
The *chain reaction* comes from the same type of internal nuclear reaction as radioactivity, but there is a very large difference in the outcome.
To compare the two reactions with something that we might have even seen, we could say that a wet wood log will burn relatively slowly and take more time to release all the *heat* from any size of log. The chemical reaction is the same for dry wood.
If you make a raging fire that is accelerated with oxygen, and then drop the wet burning log in the middle of the fire, you will notice that the wet log will burn very quickly, compared to the *non accelerated* fire.
In this simile the wet log represents the *radioactivity* and the accelerated fire represents the *chain reaction*.
Obviously, in both cases the *slow* reaction takes relatively longer time to complete.
Uranium is still *radioactive* and gives off radiation and *heat* even though the material was created billions of years ago. Why would that happen; you may ask, you see the *original* uranium atom that started the reaction may have decayed to a stable isotope by now, but; the thing is that radioactivity *infects* its surrounding atoms, the action is similar to chain reaction but at a comparatively slow rate. And there lies the problem.
The world seems very large to an individual human being, but it is not *infinite in size*. The human population on Earth is rabidly closing on 8 billion individuals. Humans have needs and 8 billion people need food, water, and fuel. The fuel can be obtained from renewable recourses, such as wind, sunlight, geothermal, Etc.; there is another way to save energy. The turbines that are used in the flowing water system, to generate alternating electric power of 50 or 60 Hertz, must turn to generate those pulses per second constantly, meaning that maximum efficiency of power conversion happens when all the energy that the turbine can generate at the specified frequency is used up by the electrical load. But the load fluctuates; sometimes the load is much below the most efficient energy conversion level, in such times the conversion level can be improved by using the *wasted* energy to separate Hydrogen and Oxygen from water.
The Oxygen can be stored and sold to various companies that need Oxygen for their operation. The Hydrogen can also be stored and then converted to Calcium Hydride for transportation and use, as described above.
I believe that implementing the *Hydrogen Economy* in large scale will be a big step in cleaning the air around our beautiful planet, but I also think that the nuclear disintegrations or *radioactivity* that is increasing every day and spread all around the world is also contributing to the *global change*.
According to the two formulas presented earlier, nuclear activity is energy.
In the *chain reaction* the miniscule parts of the atomic nucleus move at various speeds, some parts approaching the speed of light and some, such as gamma rays, actually matching that speed, the same thing happens in *radioactive* elements, the only difference between the two reactions is the energy density per unit volume, and time.
Certain amount of *heat* is necessary to initiate the burning of wood and certain amount of *activity* or radioactive *heat* is required to begin the *chain reaction*, that point is called a *critical point* and it was achieved the first time by *piling* together a large quantity of radioactive material.
The *pile* proved that the chain reaction could be achieved and that it can be controlled. The *controlled* chain reaction is used in electrical power generation.
Both the fast and the controlled nuclear reactions generate *daughter* elements, the *daughter* elements are also *radioactive* and they are the ones that fly off at various speeds and also *decay* to neutral non radioactive atoms at various speeds. Some *daughter* elements take less than fraction of a second to become *neutral* and some take thousands of years to become *neutral*.
The elements that take a long time to become neutral have a better chance of *infecting* its neighbor atoms, such *infected* atoms become radioactive in the process and again can *infect* its neighbors.
Such *infections* can be compared to virus infections between humans, in that *not everyone*; or every *atom*; will become *infected* immediately, but with time; the chances of *infection* increase.
The *chain reaction* was discovered in December of 1942 and today is August of 2021, so the accelerated radioactive *infection* has had almost 80 years of time to *infect* other atoms,
Since *radioactivity* causes heat in its vicinity and *new* radioactive atoms have been created for almost 80 years: The question is; how much heat have these *new* radioactive atoms contributed to the environment?
In combination with the *green house effect* the quantity of *heat production* from *daughter* elements may be quite high even in the global sense.
As far as I know; such *heat* production from *new* radioactive *daughter* elements have not been studied thoroughly.
If you have accurate information on that subject please let me know.
WHAT IF the *collective* production of *energy*, including heat, from *new* radioactive *daughter* elements is higher than anyone anticipates?
In that case the Earth would get very hot very quickly, even faster than the *greenhouse*, scenario would predict. Since the Earth has been in relatively stable energy balance over very long time, meaning that the energy from the sun combined with the energy from the radioactive elements within the Earth’s crust, have been in balance with the outgoing energy that has radiated into space, any *extra* energy needs to radiate into space also in order to keep the balance constant.
The *greenhouse* gasses in the atmosphere are said to reflect the infrared radiation, that otherwise would escape into space, back to Earth, and that is why the environment is heating up.
If you add to this the *heat* radiation from all the *daughter* elements that have been created during the years, then the environment will heat up faster than the greenhouse effect alone would do.
The size of the celestial object, such as the Earth and the Moon, have the *ability* to *regulate* the pressure of their *atmosphere*, The smaller the object in space the weaker its gravitational field is, and the less of a *grip* it has on the faster moving elements and molecules that exist in their atmosphere. The hotter the surface of a planet, the faster the molecules in the atmosphere move and if the molecules move very fast then they can *escape* from the atmosphere. The *escape velocity* depends on the gravitational field of the celestial object.
For Earth the escape velocity is about 7 miles per second, that seems quite high and should keep the atmospheric pressure relatively constant, but suppose that the following scenario is happening on Earth.
The *greenhouse effect* is heating the atmosphere and the water of the oceans, but that is not quite enough to cause the molecules to escape into space, then we insert more *radioactive heat* into the system, now the atmosphere expands and begins a process somewhat similar to boiling water, the molecules in the upper atmosphere will start to move so fast that the Earth’s gravitational field cannot hold onto them and they *escape* into space, when that happens in large enough quantity, then the results will be extremely disruptive all over the world.
Just as the UN climate report states.